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Sapphire(Al2O3) is consists of 3 oxygen atoms and 2 aluminium atoms by covalent bond, it is hexagonal lattice structure. Sapphire possesses unique properties of excellent optical, mechanical, chemical stability with high intensity, high hardness.
It is able to work under the temperature of 2000 centigrade, which is applied in infrared military devices, high intensity laser lens and photo-mask material. The unique lattice structure, mechanical and thermal property makes sapphire the major material for photoelectric devices. Usually, sapphire substrate is used for growing GaN based material and device epitaxial layer. Sapphire substrate has several advantages, first, growth technology is mature, device performs well, second, high stability enables the use under high-temperature growth, at last, it can be processed and cleaned easily because of its high mechanical intensity, which is the reason why it is applied as substrate in many process.

Properties of sapphire crystal

Main applications of sapphire:

optical: Sapphire is a superior material for highly sophisticated optical applications, because it is highly transparent at wavelengths of light between 0.18 µm to 5.5 µm , as well as being five times stronger than glass. High optical transmission of sapphire combined with the perfect chemical durability, wear resistance and the ability to withstand high temperatures made sapphire the leading material for sensor optics and optical components for spectroscopy.

mechanical: Sapphire is wide used for scratch proof windows in high quality watches, scanner applications and other high wear applications and for precision mechanical components, because its extreme hardness makes the surface resistant to scratching.

high temperature and high pressure: Sapphire has a unique combination of physical, chemical and optical properties allowing it to withstand high pressure and thermal shock. Sapphire has a melting point of over 2000 C°, making it ideal for high-temperature applications. High pressure sapphire tubes and windows, high strength and vacuum windows, high temperature sapphire windows are small part of large range of optics in this specific field.

chemical: Chemically inert to common acids and alkali at temperatures up to 1000 °C, sapphire tubes, crucibles and other sapphire optics are irreplaceable for different applications for chemical industry. Sapphire is excellent for sprays and nozzles of all types, products subjected to high temperatures or in contact with acids. Sapphire replaced quartz ware to improve durability and reduce contamination while offering good UV transmission.

electrical: Due to its a high, stable dielectric constant, sapphire is wide used for electronic substrates. Electrical properties of sapphire are depend on crystallographic orientation. In addition, sapphire wafers are used in the semiconductor industry as a substrate for the growth of gallium nitride based devices LED (light emitting diodes).

medical: Sapphire is often used in endoscopes lenses due to its durability in contact with tissues and in sterilization environments such as autoclaving. Also tips from sapphire are very good for various surgical laser applications and sapphire light guides are commonly used in cosmetic skin procedures.

   

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