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 Sapphire(Al2O3) is consists of 3 oxygen atoms and 2 aluminium atoms by covalent bond, it is hexagonal lattice structure. Sapphire possesses unique properties of excellent optical, mechanical, chemical stability with high intensity, high hardness.
It is able to work under the temperature of 2000 centigrade, which is applied in infrared military devices, high intensity laser lens and photo-mask material. The unique lattice structure, mechanical and thermal property makes sapphire the major material for photoelectric devices. Usually, sapphire substrate is used for growing GaN based material and device epitaxial layer. Sapphire substrate has several advantages, first, growth technology is mature, device performs well, second, high stability enables the use under high-temperature growth, at last, it can be processed and cleaned easily because of its high mechanical intensity, which is the reason why it is applied as substrate in many process.

Sapphire Crystals (Al2O3)
Names: Corundum, Sapphire, Alpha-alumina

Synthetic single-crystal sapphire (Al2O3) is the leadingmaterial for highly advanced optical applications due to a uniquecombination of excellent optical, physical and chemical properties. Itis transparent over a wide range of wavelengths from vacuum ultravioletto infrared regions (from 0.18 µm to 5.5 µm). Due to its hexagonalcrystalline structure, sapphire is anisotropic in many optical andphysical properties. Therefore the exact characteristics of opticalcomponents made from sapphire depend on crystallographic directionrelative to the optical axis (C-axis, 0001). Sapphire possessesbirefringence on all directions except for c-axis. Sapphire is thehardest of the oxide crystals. Due to its extreme surface hardness,sapphire can be scratched by only a few substances (for example,diamond and boron nitride). Thanks to its great strength, windows madefrom sapphire can be much thinner than windows of other opticalmaterials. That's why they are useful even at wavelengths that are veryclose to their transmission limits.

We can deliver the Sapphire material produced by two different methods of sapphire growth:

Kyropulos method:is used to produce a large boule of sapphire, most typically of acylindrical form. As-grown boule can be from 70 up to 200 mm indiameter and up to 250 mm in height. Sapphire grown by this methodnormally has a very high optical quality with low defect density withefficient costs, and can be cut into wafers of any crystallographicorientation. This method is applied for manufacturing substrates forblue LEDs and SOS wafers.

Stepanov method (EFG):a shaped growth technique used for growing sapphire in near-netfinished shape, including tubes, rods, sheets, and fibers. Thistechnique can also provide unique shapes and sealed assemblies. ByStepanov method, ribbon crystals up to 500 mm long and 80 mm wide aregrown. Crystals grown by this method can have differentcrystallographic orientations (A, R, random) and are mainly used forindustrial & mechanical applications, where good optical qualitiesare not important.


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